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Oilfield Demulsifier Testing

Oilfield Demulsifier Testing

  • Industry: Oilfield Production
  • Products Used: Complete Range of Oilfield Demulsifier's
  • Location: Middle East Client

THE PROPOSITION

The client operated field in the Middle East which produces crude with not only a heavy API but also a significant water cut. As such it is essential that the correct Oilfield Demulsifier is employed onsite, in order to remove any water contained within the crude oil, before it is sent to refinery.

Chemiphase were invited to carry out Demulsifier bottle testing onsite, in order to determine the correct demulsifier blend to be applied onsite.

Well Information

The wells to be tested were from two separate points and would represent one heavy sample and one light sample of crude oil. This is in order to replicate the field conditions.
The crude oil at the well head has an API of 12. This crude oil is fed into a production manifold where a secondary, lighter crude is blended into it. This lighter crude has an API of 34 and serves to raise the combined crude to an API of 17. After this point the chosen demulsifier is added and the combined crude and demulsifier is sent to one of three retention tanks. The free water is constantly removed from these retention tanks, until such time as the tanks become full of crude oil. At this point the retention tanks are shut in for 24 hours in order for the demulsifier to remove any water from the crude oil.
During the demulsifier testing the crude oil would be supplied in the form of one heavy sample and one light sample.

Chemiphase Demulsifier Samples

Chemiphase supplied 34 samples of demulsifier bases. These were chosen for their proven ability with heavy crude oils around the world. These were a selection of droppers, treaters, desalters and hybrid chemicals. The samples that were supplied and available for testing were 'ready to use' products and required no blending with solvents. This was to ensure consistency in the samples used for bottle testing and to ensure repeatability.
The full list of Chemiphase demulsifiers that were tested on the client's crude can be found in table 3.0.1

Non Chemiphase Demulsifier Samples

Alongside the Chemiphase demulsifier samples, three other third party demulsifiers were supplied. These were intended to act as a comparison against the Chemiphase samples and in order to show the effectiveness of the Chemiphase products.
The samples were supplied by the client and included "Competitor A," "Competitor B," and "Competitor C."

Bottle Test Method

It was essential that the bottle test method accurately represent the field conditions. The crude oil that is retained in the retention tanks and is subject to the demulsifier, is a blend of the heavy crude oil and a lighter crude oil, intended to raise the overall API to aid in demulsification.
The bottle testing was carried out on the heavy crude oil and light crude oil mixed in a 4:1 ratio of heavy to light. This was mixed in the lab using the crude oil samples supplied.
The bottle testing was carried out using 140ml clear glass sample bottles with clear volumetric markings on the bottles. Each bottle was filled with 100ml of the crude sample and dosed with 500ppm of the demulsifier.
The samples were placed in a water bath at 50 degC and allowed 24 hours for the separation to occur.
The samples were noted for the amount of water drop out, amount of basic solid drop out, clarity of water and sharpness of the oil water interface.

Chemiphase

 

Function

Suitability

Demulsifier

RSN

Dehydrator

Coalescer

Hybrid

All Round

Heavy

Environmental

D- 0601

15

Y

 

 

 

Y

 

D- 0602

11

Y

 

 

 

Y

 

D- 0603

17

 

 

Y

 

Y

Y

D- 0604

8

 

Y

 

 

Y

 

D- 0605

7

Y

 

Y

 

Y

Y

D- 0606

19

Y

 

 

 

Y

 

D- 0607

17

Y

 

 

 

Y

 

D- 0608

6

Y

 

 

 

Y

 

D- 0609

8

Y

 

 

 

Y

 

D- 0610

23

Y

 

 

 

Y

 

D- 0611

11

Y

 

 

 

Y

 

D- 0612

21

Y

 

 

 

Y

 

D- 0613

18

 

Y

 

 

Y

 

D- 0614

20

Y

 

 

 

Y

 

D- 0615

7

 

 

Y

 

Y

 

D- 0616

6

 

 

Y

Y

 

 

D- 0617

20

Y

 

 

Y

 

 

D- 0618

16

Y

 

y

Y

 

 

D- 0619

6

 

Y

 

Y

 

 

D- 0620

21

Y

 

y

Y

 

 

D- 0621

21

Y

 

y

Y

 

 

D- 0622

8

 

 

Y

 

 

Y

D- 0623

15

 

 

y

 

 

Y

 

Remaining Water Centrifuge Test Method

Once the bottles had been subjected to 24 hours in the water bath a centrifuge test was carried out in order to determine the total water remaining in the crude samples. This test involved a two stage process.

  • The centrifuge test was carried out using 12ml clear glass test tubes with clear volumetric markings. Each test tube was filled with 5 ml of toluene to which a further 5 ml of the crude oil that was to be tested was added.
  • The first stage of the test involved centrifuging the samples at 1600rpm for 5minutes. The samples were examined for the amount of water drop out, amount of basic solid drop out, clarity of water and sharpness of the oil water interface. These figures were recorded and the samples moved on to the second stage of the centrifuge test.
  • The second stage of the centrifuge test involved introduction of 'knock out drops' to the samples. This was in the form of High strength Knock Out Drops," samples. Two drops of the High strength Knock Out Drops," were added to each sample, the samples were then centrifuged at 1600rpm for a further 5 minutes. The samples were examined for the amount of water drop out, amount of basic solid drop out, clarity of water and sharpness of the oil water interface.

Bottle Testing- Demulsifier Bases

The initial testing involved bottle testing each demulsifier base in order that we could establish the best combination of droppers, treaters, desalters and hybrids.
The bottle test was carried out for each one of the 34 Chemiphase samples along with one blank sample, one sample of the Competitor A and one sample of the Competitor B, as detailed above.

Bottle Testing- Demulsifier Bases- First Round Results

*Water Clarity and Interface are based on a scale of 1-5 with five being the highest and most desirable.

Sample

% H2O

Drop Out

% BS

Drop Out

Water Clarity

Interface

BLANK

0

0

NA

NA

COMPETITOR A

9.0

0

2 - Multiple Large oil droplets in water phase

2 - Poor, brown opaque (2.5%)

COMPETITOR B

5.5

0

2 - Multiple Large oil droplets in water phase

2 - Poor, brown opaque (1.0%)

Chemiphase D0602

2.5

0

4 - Good, few small oil droplets noticeable

3 - Quite defined, Ragged interface

Chemiphase D0606

5.5

0

3 - Opaque but oil free

4 - Highly defined

Chemiphase D0607

1.5

0

4 - Good, few small oil droplets noticeable

3 - Quite defined, Ragged interface

Chemiphase D0610

1.0

0

3 - Looks clear although very small drop

3 - Good interface

Chemiphase D0613

1.0

0

3 - Looks clear although very small drop

3 - Good interface, very small drop

Chemiphase D0618

2.0

0

2 - Multiple Large oil droplets in water phase

2 - Poor, Ragged interface

Chemiphase D0623

2.0

0

2 - Light brown in colour

2 - Poor, Ragged interface

Chemiphase D0633

7.5

0

5 - Very Clear Water

5 - Very Sharp

Chemiphase D0634

3.0

0

5 - Very Clear Water

4 - Sharp, slight ragged

 
Overall the first round of bottle testing showed encouraging signs for the Chemiphase products. Four droppers and four treaters products were identified as being suitable to go forward to the next stage of testing.

The initial testing showed that the Competitor A product performed the best; however the Competitor B product performed in a similar manner to that of the individual Chemiphase Bases at 5.5 % water drop.

Centrifuge Testing- Demulsifier Bases- First Round Results

The samples identified above as being suitable for the second round of testing were tested for remaining water content via the centrifuge test, as outline above.

Sample

Without Knock out Drops (%)

With Knock Out Drops

(%)

Difference

(%)

BLANK

0

0.3

0.3

Competitor A

0

0.2

0.2

Competitor B

0

1.0

1.0

Chemiphase D0633

0.5

0.5

0.0

Chemiphase D0606

3.0

3.0

0.0

Chemiphase D0618

2.0

2.0

0.0

Chemiphase D0623

2.0

2.0

0.0

Chemiphase D0613

0.5

0.75

0.25




 

Bottle Testing- Demulsifier-Second Round Results

Once the correct Chemiphase bases were established, the bases were combined in order to find the most suitable combination of droppers and treaters. The Chemiphase products were combined in the following way.
 
Each of the products was combined at a ratio of 1:1 and added to the samples at a dosage rate of 500ppm (therefore 250ppm of each product).
The samples were tested as per the above method and the results were recorded after 24 hours in the water bath.
 

Set A

 

Set B

Sample Name

Products

 

Sample Name

Products

A1

D0602 + D 0604

 

B1

D0606 + D 0604

A2

D0602 + D 0613

 

B2

D0606 + D 0613

A3

D0602 + D 0618

 

B3

D0606 + D 0618

A4

D0602 + D 0623

 

B4

D0606 + D 0623

Set C

 

Set D

Sample Name

Products

 

Sample Name

Products

C1

D0607 + D 0604

 

D1

D0610 + D 0604

C2

D0607 + D 0613

 

D2

D0610 + D 0613

C3

D0607 + D 0618

 

D3

D0610 + D 0618

C4

D0607 + D 0623

 

D4

D0610 + D 0623

 

Bottle Testing- Demulsifier-Second Round Results

Sample

% H2O Drop

Out

% BS Drop

Out

Water Clarity

Interface

BLANK

0

0

na

na

COMPETITOR A

0.0

0

No noticeable water drop

No noticeable water drop

COMPETITOR B

5.0

0

4 - Good H2O clarity,

2 - Ragged, Large oil droplets in water

A1

7.0

0

4 - Good H2O clarity,

3 – Good, Small Oil droplets in water

A2

5.0

0

4 - Good H2O clarity,

4 - Good, Small oil droplets in water

A3

9.0

0

3 - H2O slightly cloudy

4 - Good, Small oil droplets in water

A4

3.0

0

5 - Clear H2O clarity,

4 - Good, Small oil droplets in water

B1

9.5

0

4 - Good H2O clarity,

3 - Finely dispersed oil at interface

B2

7.5

0

3 - H2O slightly cloudy

3- Finely dispersed oil at interface

B3

8.0

0.25

3 -Good H2O clarity,

4 - Good, Small oil droplets in water

B4

5.0

0

3 - Good H2O clarity,

3 - Finely dispersed oil at interface

C1

0.0

0

na

na

C2

0.0

0

na

na

C3

0.0

0

na

na

C4

0.0

0

na

na

D1

7.5

0

4 - Good H2O clarity,

4 - Good,No Noticeable oil, very slight

D2

0.0

0

na

na

D3

0.0

0

na

na

D4

0.0

0

na

na

 

Bottle Test Conclusions

The results show that the four best performing Chemiphase samples are the A1, A3, B1 and B3 samples. All four of

these samples exceeded the results obtained at the stage two trials by either the Competitor A or Competitor B product. The samples also matched or exceeded the results gained by either the Competitor A or Competitor B product at the stage one trials.

Conclusions & Recommendations

As you can see the Chemiphase Oilfield Demulsifier products have shown better performance in the demulsifer bottle testing than the competitors products.

The centrifuge test shows water drop out when using the Chemiphase products , exceed  the 0.4% limit set  by the client. The amount of water dropped out using the Chemiphase products consistently out performs  the competition and the clarity of water produced is of a much high quality than is produced when using non Chemiphase products.

 

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